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2011年3月31日木曜日

福島県南相馬市小野田病院の現状について

日本バイ・ディジタルO-リングテスト協会
下津浦先生

いつもお世話になっております。
この度の震災及び原発事故の発生に際し、先生のご配慮に
深く感謝申し上げます。
病院の方は、入院患者の移送も全て終了し再開の目途が立つまで
しばらく休業する事となりましたが、患者移送後の残務処理及び再開に
向けての作業を一部職員で行っている状況です。
病院の現状を添付します。
今後とも、よろしくお願い致します。

小野田病院   林







Researchers study cancer risks for Chernobyl survivors
NEW YORK, New York (CBS) -- The National Cancer Institute has released a new study on the cancer risks for the people who lived through Chernobyl.
The world's worst nuclear accident happened at the Chernobyl plant in the Soviet Union in April 1986. A reactor explosion sent radioactive iodine into the air. Now a new study finds that the risk of thyroid cancer for children and teens at the time of the accident continues decades of later.
Dr. Robert J. McConnell with the NY Presbyterian-Columbia University Medical Center says, "The thyroid of children and adolescents is particularly sensitive to the cancer causing effects of radioactive iodine."
Dr. McConnell is one of the study's author's. More than 12 000 people were studied all were under 18 years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident. They were screened for thyroid cancer up to four times, years after the incident and 65 were found to have the disease. Radioactive iodine, which accumulates in the thyroid, causes cancer. But researchers found that most of the radioactivity did not come from the air.
Dr. McConnell says, "The greatest amt of radioactive iodine exposure came from ingestion of contaminated milk and vegetables."
As the world waits to see the impact of the Japanese nuclear accident, Studies like this one could provide scientists important information about cancer and radiation exposure.
Dr. James O'Donnell with University Hospitals Case Medical Center says, "We can have a better estimate of what their long term risk is and we can set up long term follow up, or example, people getting regular thyroid exams and looking for the development of nodules or abnormalities that may lead to cancer."
And nearly 25 years later, there is still uncertainty for the children of Chernobyl. Researchers don't know when, or if, their risk of cancer will decrease.

(Source: CBS Newspath)

2011年3月28日月曜日

Message from Brazil

Dear Dr. Shimotsuura,


BDORT Medical Society and staff


The Japan-descendants and the Brazilian people are perplexed by the death, destruction and the spread of radiation from nuclear reactors in Fukushima.
Tell us, how can we help? Is there anything we can do to help?
We believe in the ability of Japanese people to overcome crises, and force for reconstruction that has already demonstrated in the past.
However, if the nuclear crisis worsens, I invite you to come to Brazil, with your families. We will find solutions to accommodate any number of people
...


We are praying that everything will be resolved soon




Sincerely






Sumie Iwasa


Brazilian  Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Medical Association

2011年3月27日日曜日

Wetterlage und Ausbreitungsbedingungen in Japanドイツ気象台の放射能飛散予測

Wetterlage und Ausbreitungsbedingungen in Japan

日本の天気予報、分散条件

オッフェンバッハ、2011年3月27日
トップ:2011年3月27日00 UTCにモデルの実行から日本では火曜日の朝には相対的な濃度の/予測伝搬
高空気圧は、天候は決定しています。 当初は太平洋の南東部に放射性粒子の除去されている北西風のコンポーネントによって支配されます。 その日のうちに、それは別の方向からの弱風になります。 粒子は主に、海に東に輸送されるだけでなく、東海岸の一部を、また首都圏が影響を受けますが、はるかに希釈濃度インチ

写真中央:伝播/相対濃度の予測、日本では水曜日の朝に27/03/2011 00 UTCのモデルから実行
火曜日の太平洋高気圧の移行細胞の過程で背後に西洋風は、太平洋の東に福島からの放射性粒子を除去するための直接提供するコンポーネントです。 首都圏からも追加が太平洋上の西風に戻って運ばれる。

6時間の時間ステップ(画像をクリックすると下)のイメージアニメーションは福島私は250メートルHöhefür三日間の発電所から出発し、拡散放射性空気が終了積んだ示しています。 排出量の強さが不明であるため、値は相対的な分布と濃度未知のソースのとしてのみ希薄化後をzuinterpretierenされます。 地面にtatsächlicheradioaktive負荷に結論はことは不可能です!位置に関する情報は、BMU(www.bmu.de)のウェブサイト上で見つけることができます。
へCopyright(c)ドイツ天気予報サービス












http://www.dwd.de/bvbw/generator/DWDWWW/Content/Oeffentlichkeit/KU/KUPK/Homepage/Aktuelles/Sonderbericht__Bild5,templateId=poster,property=poster.gif


投稿者: 原子力資料情報室 投稿日時: 2011/3/26 18:08:11 (8975 ヒット)
本日(2011/3/26)16:00~のUstream中継で崎山比早子さんが紹介したリンクです。
放送の録画はこちら
http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/13570931
http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/13571531


●SPEEDIとは
http://www.bousai.ne.jp/vis/torikumi/index0301.html


●ドイツ気象庁 http://www.dwd.de/
福島第一原発からの放射能放出の予測
http://www.dwd.de/bvbw/generator/DWDWWW/Content/Oeffentlichkeit/KU/KUPK/Homepage/Aktuelles/Sonderbericht__Bild5,templateId=poster,property=poster.gif

2011年3月26日土曜日

プロジェクトX 挑戦者たち チェルノブイリの傷 奇跡のメス

プロジェクトX 挑戦者たち チェルノブイリの傷 奇跡のメス 




1986年4月26日。旧ソ連ウクライナで人類史上最悪の事故が発生した。チェルノブイリ原子力発電所4号炉の爆発。大量の放射性物質が発生、その多くが風下に位置したベ­ラルーシに流れ、間もなく悲劇が始まった。子供たちに甲状腺ガンが多発し始めたのである。現地の病院で手術を受けた子供たちの首筋には、一生消えない大きな傷がついた。そ­の時、一人の日本人医師が立ち上がった。信州大学医学部の外科医、菅谷昭。父は、夜の往診も厭わない町医者。もっと患者と向き合いたい、そんな思いを抱き続けていた菅谷は­、大学教授の座を辞し、ベラルーシに渡ることを決意する。ベラルーシでの菅谷のたった一人での闘いが始まった。やがて菅谷の高い手術技術や、患者との交流に心打たれていく­若い現地医師たち。いつしか菅谷のアパートに集まり、勉強会が開かれるようになった。菅谷は、彼らに自分の手術技術の全てを伝えた。さらに菅谷は、手術後もガン再発の不安­を抱える患者達の家を一軒一軒訪ね、診察を繰り返した。脳裏には父の姿がよぎっていた。そんな菅谷の活動に共感し、菅谷を支えようと奮闘する一人の男がいた。28歳の若手­医師、ゲンナジー・トゥールだった。二人は訪問診療を黙々と続けていた。やがて菅谷たちの努力は、ある一つの奇跡を産んだ・・・。人類史上最悪の事故と対峙した、日本人医­師と現地の医師たちの5年半に及ぶ闘いを描く。


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJu-rU4-Xyk&hd=1



チェルノブイリ原発事故・終わりなき人体汚染 youtube

チェルノブイリ原発事故・終わりなき人体汚染

土→牧草→牛→牛乳→人間に放射能が濃縮していくとは・・・恐ろしい!福島第一原発3号機で灰色の煙が出て、海水からも国の規制値を上回る放射性物質が検出された今、これ­を見たら日本の農作物や牛乳も単なる風評被害とは言ってられない!






チェルノブイリ Chernobyl 2009






Therapeutic Application of Cold Pressed Pine Nut Oil in a group involved in the clean-up of the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station in 1986–1987

Radiation is a form of beneficial energy which helps sustain life on our planet. But if it accumulates in a large quantity in one place, then it causes tremendous harm to Nature which takes decades to undo. Man is a part of Nature and shares in the consequences of any such catastrophe. In the case of exposure to intense radiation, serious harm results for all the body’s life-sustaining mechanisms, and the body’s defense system is significantly weakened.
  This results in abnormalities and diseases. Up until recently medical theory held that the consequences of radiation exposure are incurable, which makes the following report all the more compelling.
  In 1992 a experimental research was conducted into the therapeutic effect of cold pressed pine nut oil on a group of people who had taken part in the clean-up of the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station in 1986–1987. The group under observation consisted of 11 persons, including people with pronounced post-Chernobyl syndrome (stenisation, psychopathisation, pronounced irritability of the sympathetic nervous system). The most common complaints were: increased liability to fatigue, reduced working capacity in the latter part of the day (experienced by the whole group), sleeping disorders (8 subjects), frequent nervous breakdowns (7 subjects), recurring headaches (7 subjects). In addition, 4 persons suffered from chronic gastroduodenitis and 3 from chronic laryngotracheitis. The treatment programmed lasted 30–40 days and included a daily intake of cold pressed pine nut oil in a milk emulsion of 50%. The mixture was taken in two different doses: once every morning on an empty stomach, in the amount of 1 tablespoon (20 g approx.), and 3 times a day before meals in the amount of 1 teaspoon (7 g approx.).
 All patients reported positive results from taking the cold pressed pine nut oil. All 11 subjects noticed an improvement in their overall well-being, increased working capacity, a significant stabilization of the nervous system and a normalization of sleep patterns. Headaches disappeared (4 subjects) or were less pronounced (3 subjects). A beneficial effect was also observed on the gastrointestinal tract — symptoms of gastritis were barely noticeable. Bowel functions normalized. The symptoms of laryngotracheitis completely disappeared in the three patients who were suffering from this disease.
It is interesting to note that during the whole time the mixture was being taken not one of the patients took ill with flu or any other acute respiratory disease.
It should be
emphasized that no health improvement was achieved by members of this group through ordinary medical remedies. As a natural food product, pine nut oil has practically no counter-indications to its application.
F. Saleev, Captain, First Class Chairman of the Medical Commission of the Tomsk Division, Chernobyl Union M.D., Assistant Professor, Head of the Department of Military Epidemiology
A. Shardakov, Chairman, Tomsk Division, Chernobyl Union

http://www.pinenutoil.org/ Used by permission. © Copyright CedarInfo.info
(Serbia のProf. Momir Dunjicより)

宇宙飛行士が宇宙放射線の影響を避けるために用いている方法(前田華郎先生より)

宇宙飛行士が宇宙放射線の影響を避けるために用いている方法ですが、照射された部位を緩やかなシャワーで洗い、その時石鹸を使わず、その後クリームよりもオリーブオイルを使った方がよいそうです。食べるものは、海藻、1日に1個の卵、たくさんのニンニクを食べるとよいと云うことです。これらに含まれているシステイン様物質が、DNAの障害を修復するからだそうです。
骨シンチの検査の後に、注射された放射性医薬品は、リン酸塩の多い骨に結合しているので、リン酸を含むコーラを飲むと排泄が早まるということです。Professor  Jane PlantYour life in your hands,2008,10,3初版より。参考文献:「乳がんと牛乳──がん細胞はなぜ消えたのか」ジェイン・プラント博士 (著), 佐藤章夫 (翻訳), 径書房; 初版 (2008)
放射線障害は、体内からたくさんのマイナスイオンが出ていくので
活性酸素障害と似ているそうです。マイナスイオンを多く摂取するとよいそうです。マイナスイオンを積極的に体内に浸透させることをやっているところがあります。詳細は四国の香川県にある堀口裕先生 http://www.e-doctor.ne.jp/contents/08month/clinic/c07-05.htmlに伺ってください。   
              
                     以上  アドバンスクリニック 前田華郎

2011年3月25日金曜日

放射能はいらない youtube動画

投稿者: | 作成日: 2011/03/14
1.放射能ってなあに? 2.汚染食品を食べるとどうなるの? 3.放射能が平気な人もいるみたい 4.どうして放射能は危ないの? 5.生き残れるの私たち
子供達の未来のためにこれだけは知って欲しい。
【市川定夫】1935年大阪府生まれ。京都大学大学院修了。農学博士。米国ブルックヘブン国立研究所研究員、メキシコ国立チャピンゴ農科大学大学院客員教授、埼玉大学理学­部教授等を経て、現在、埼玉大学名誉教授。その間、伊方原発訴訟や原爆症認定訴訟などの原告側証人として放射線と遺伝の関係を証言。また、ムラサキツユクサの研究は有名で­、ごく低線量でも生物に影響があることを証明。1995年から原水禁国民会議副議長を務め、今年4月に議長に就任









2011年3月21日月曜日

youtube movie about radiation

Nuclear No-go: Geiger counter key device in Japan


Nuclear Thriller: What if Fukushima meltdown not stopped on time?

福島原発の危険性とその対処法

福島原発の危険性とその対処法

放射性核種の体外への除去 (09-03-03-08) http://www.rist.or.jp/index.htmlより引用

<概要>
放射性核種による体内汚染は、実験室や病院における小規模のものから、原子力施設における事故のように地球規模の環境汚染をひきおこす大規模のものまである。これまでは、緊急時の対策としては放射線関連の作業者たちが対象であったが、チェルノブイリ原発事故が示すように広く一般公衆についても考慮する必要がある。
ここでは、放射性核種を摂取した場合の除去法について整理し、核種としては人体にとって放射線影響の大きいとされている核分裂生成核種、131I、137Cs、90Srおよび超ウラン元素のPu,Amを中心にのべる。

<更新年月>
2004年09月   

<本文>
摂取した放射性核種により被ばくが問題になる場合、胃や肺の洗浄、外科的手術、特に薬剤による体外除去が重要な処置方法となる。実際の事故時には、多種の核種を同時に体内に取り込むことも多く、核種の種類、摂取時の化学形、体内における存在状態や挙動を知ることが重要である。複数の除去剤を利用する場合にはそれらの相互作用についても考慮する必要があり、除去のメカニズムを理解した上で方法を選択することが望ましい。以下に記すのは国際的に推奨されている除去剤利用方法であるが、用量については摂取量により異なる(文献参照)
(1)放射性ヨウ素131I)にはヨウ素剤が用いられる。
ヨウ素は、甲状腺ホルモンの構成成分であり131Iを体内に摂取すると甲状腺濃縮される。131Iによる甲状腺被ばくを軽減するためにヨウ素剤を投与して131Iの濃度を希釈する。ヨウ素剤は主としてヨウ化カリウム(KI)が用いられる。ヨウ素剤の投与は早ければ早いほど効果がある。チェルノブイリ原発事故の際には旧ソ連や東欧諸国の幼児、青少年に投与された。
(2)放射性セシウム137Cs)にはプルシアンブルー(PB)が用いられる(図1)。
PBはフェロシアン化鉄のことで137Csに対して顕著な吸着効果を示す。ブラジル・ゴイアニアの137Cs摂取事故の時にはPBが用いられた。
(3)放射性ストロンチウム(90Sr)にはアルギン酸ナトリウムが推奨されている。
アルギン酸は、褐藻類に含まれている粘質多糖類で90Srと不溶性の塩を生成して体外に排泄する作用がある(図2)。この他、甲殻類の殻に含まれているキチン、キトサンにも効果のあることが認められている。
(4)プルトニウム、アメリシウムなどには合成キレート剤が用いられる。
人体を対象とする合成キレート剤の中で最も一般的なものはジエチレントリアミン五酢酸DTPA)である。DTPAはdiethyrene diamine tetra acetic acidの略で代表的なキレート試薬であるエチレンジアミン四酢酸(EDTA)を基に開発された。ハンフォード原子力施設従事者のアメリシウム(Am)摂取事故で用いられ、その効果が実証されている。多くの合成キレート剤が検討されているが副作用に注意が必要である(表1表2)。
(5)その他の放射性核種についてもそれぞれ特性的な除去剤が用いられる。
体内放射能の除去法については古くから多くの研究が行なわれてきた。その多くは動物を用いた実験であり、動物実験の結果がそのまま人間にあてはまらない場合も多い。副作用にも留意しなくてはならない。
国際放射線防護委員会(ICRP)、国際原子力機関(IAEA)、英国放射線防護局(NRPB)などの国際機関でも、体内放射能の除去法に関する緊急時対策の指針がまとめられている。
<図/表>
表1 除去効果および毒性が検討されている合成キレート剤
表2 プルトニウムおよびアメリシウムなどの除去効果および毒性が検討されているキレート剤
図1 プルシアンブルー(PB)による人体中セシウム137の排泄促進
図2 アルギン酸を投与し20分後に放射性ストロンチウムを投与したときの体内量(ヒト)

・図表を一括してダウンロードする場合は ここをクリックして下さい。


<関連タイトル>
放射性核種の体内移行と代謝 (09-01-04-01)
チェルノブイリをめぐる放射線影響問題 (09-01-04-10)
内部被ばく (09-01-05-02)
米国ハンフォード再処理施設における241Am被ばく事故 (09-03-02-08)
安定ヨウ素剤投与 (09-03-03-05)

<参考文献>
(1)NCRP No.65(1980)
(2)IAEA Safety Series、No47(1978)
(3)青木芳朗、渡利一夫(編):人体内放射能の除去技術、講談社サイエンティフィク(1996)
(4)渡利一夫、稲葉次郎(編):放射能と人体、研成社(2000年4月)
(5)Generic.prosedures for medical responnse during nuclear and radiological emargency,IAEA-TECDOC series

We will have to cover some fundamentals, before we get into what is going on.Construction of the Fukushima nuclear power plants

http://mitnse.com/2011/03/13/why-i-am-not-worried-about-japans-nuclear-reactors/
The plants at Fukushima are Boiling Water Reactors (BWR for short). A BWR produces electricity by boiling water, and spinning a a turbine with that steam. The nuclear fuel heats water, the water boils and creates steam, the steam then drives turbines that create the electricity, and the steam is then cooled and condensed back to water, and the water returns to be heated by the nuclear fuel. The reactor operates at about 285 °C.
The nuclear fuel is uranium oxide. Uranium oxide is a ceramic with a very high melting point of about 2800 °C. The fuel is manufactured in pellets (cylinders that are about 1 cm tall and 1 com in diameter). These pellets are then put into a long tube made of Zircaloy (an alloy of zirconium) with a failure temperature of 1200 °C (caused by the auto-catalytic oxidation of water), and sealed tight. This tube is called a fuel rod. These fuel rods are then put together to form assemblies, of which several hundred make up the reactor core.
The solid fuel pellet (a ceramic oxide matrix) is the first barrier that retains many of the radioactive fission products produced by the fission process.  The Zircaloy casing is the second barrier to release that separates the radioactive fuel from the rest of the reactor.
The core is then placed in the pressure vessel. The pressure vessel is a thick steel vessel that operates at a pressure of about 7 MPa (~1000 psi), and is designed to withstand the high pressures that may occur during an accident. The pressure vessel is the third barrier to radioactive material release.
The entire primary loop of the nuclear reactor – the pressure vessel, pipes, and pumps that contain the coolant (water) – are housed in the containment structure.  This structure is the fourth barrier to radioactive material release. The containment structure is a hermetically (air tight) sealed, very thick structure made of steel and concrete. This structure is designed, built and tested for one single purpose: To contain, indefinitely, a complete core meltdown. To aid in this purpose, a large, thick concrete structure is poured around the containment structure and is referred to as the secondary containment.
Both the main containment structure and the secondary containment structure are housed in the reactor building. The reactor building is an outer shell that is supposed to keep the weather out, but nothing in. (this is the part that was damaged in the explosions, but more to that later).
Fundamentals of nuclear reactionsThe uranium fuel generates heat by neutron-induced nuclear fission. Uranium atoms are split into lighter atoms (aka fission products). This process generates heat and more neutrons (one of the particles that forms an atom). When one of these neutrons hits another uranium atom, that atom can split, generating more neutrons and so on. That is called the nuclear chain reaction. During normal, full-power operation, the neutron population in a core is stable (remains the same) and the reactor is in a critical state.
It is worth mentioning at this point that the nuclear fuel in a reactor can never cause a nuclear explosion like a nuclear bomb. At Chernobyl, the explosion was caused by excessive pressure buildup, hydrogen explosion and rupture of all structures, propelling molten core material into the environment.  Note that Chernobyl did not have a containment structure as a barrier to the environment. Why that did not and will not happen in Japan, is discussed further below.
In order to control the nuclear chain reaction, the reactor operators use control rods. The control rods are made of boron which absorbs neutrons.  During normal operation in a BWR, the control rods are used to maintain the chain reaction at a critical state. The control rods are also used to shut the reactor down from 100% power to about 7% power (residual or decay heat).
The residual heat is caused from the radioactive decay of fission products.  Radioactive decay is the process by which the fission products  stabilize themselves by emitting energy in the form of small particles (alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, etc.).  There is a multitude of fission products that are produced in a reactor, including cesium and iodine.  This residual heat decreases over time after the reactor is shutdown, and must be removed by cooling systems to prevent the fuel rod from overheating and failing as a barrier to radioactive release. Maintaining enough cooling to remove the decay heat in the reactor is the main challenge in the affected reactors in Japan right now.
It is important to note that many of these fission products decay (produce heat) extremely quickly, and become harmless by the time you spell “R-A-D-I-O-N-U-C-L-I-D-E.”  Others decay more slowly, like some cesium, iodine, strontium, and argon.
What happened at Fukushima (as of March 12, 2011)The following is a summary of the main facts. The earthquake that hit Japan was several times more powerful than the worst earthquake the nuclear power plant was built for (the Richter scale works logarithmically; for example the difference between an 8.2 and the 8.9 that happened is 5 times, not 0.7).
When the earthquake hit, the nuclear reactors all automatically shutdown. Within seconds after the earthquake started, the control rods had been inserted into the core and the nuclear chain reaction stopped. At this point, the cooling system has to carry away the residual heat, about 7% of the full power heat load under normal operating conditions.
The earthquake destroyed the external power supply of the nuclear reactor. This is a challenging accident for a nuclear power plant, and is referred to as a “loss of offsite power.” The reactor and its backup systems are designed to handle this type of accident by including backup power systems to keep the coolant pumps working. Furthermore, since the power plant had been shut down, it cannot produce any electricity by itself.
For the first hour, the first set of multiple emergency diesel power generators started and provided the electricity that was needed. However, when the tsunami arrived (a very rare and larger than anticipated tsunami) it flooded the diesel generators, causing them to fail.
One of the fundamental tenets of nuclear power plant design is “Defense in Depth.” This approach leads engineers to design a plant that can withstand severe catastrophes, even when several systems fail. A large tsunami that disables all the diesel generators at once is such a scenario, but the tsunami of March 11th was beyond all expectations. To mitigate such an event, engineers designed an extra line of defense by putting everything into the containment structure (see above), that is designed to contain everything inside the structure.
When the diesel generators failed after the tsunami, the reactor operators switched to emergency battery power. The batteries were designed as one of the backup systems to provide power for cooling the core for 8 hours. And they did.
After 8 hours, the batteries ran out, and the residual heat could not be carried away any more.  At this point the plant operators begin to follow emergency procedures that are in place for a “loss of cooling event.” These are procedural steps following the “Depth in Defense” approach. All of this, however shocking it seems to us, is part of the day-to-day training you go through as an operator.
At this time people started talking about the possibility of core meltdown, because if cooling cannot be restored, the core will eventually melt (after several days), and will likely be contained in the containment. Note that the term “meltdown” has a vague definition. “Fuel failure” is a better term to describe the failure of the fuel rod barrier (Zircaloy).  This will occur before the fuel melts, and results from mechanical, chemical, or thermal failures (too much pressure, too much oxidation, or too hot).
However, melting was a long ways from happening and at this time, the primary goal was to manage the core while it was heating up, while ensuring that the fuel cladding remain intact and operational for as long as possible.
Because cooling the core is a priority, the reactor has a number of independent and diverse cooling systems (the reactor water cleanup system, the decay heat removal, the reactor core isolating cooling, the standby liquid cooling system, and others that make up the emergency core cooling system). Which one(s) failed when or did not fail is not clear at this point in time.
Since the operators lost most of their cooling capabilities due to the loss of power, they had to use whatever cooling system capacity they had to get rid of as much heat as possible. But as long as the heat production exceeds the heat removal capacity, the pressure starts increasing as more water boils into steam. The priority now is to maintain the integrity of the fuel rods by keeping the temperature below 1200°C, as well as keeping the pressure at a manageable level. In order to maintain the pressure of the system at a manageable level, steam (and other gases present in the reactor) have to be released from time to time. This process is important during an accident so the pressure does not exceed what the components can handle, so the reactor pressure vessel and the containment structure are designed with several pressure relief valves. So to protect the integrity of the vessel and containment, the operators started venting steam from time to time to control the pressure.
As mentioned previously, steam and other gases are vented.  Some of these gases are radioactive fission products, but they exist in small quantities. Therefore, when the operators started venting the system, some radioactive gases were released to the environment in a controlled manner (ie in small quantities through filters and scrubbers). While some of these gases are radioactive, they did not pose a significant risk to public safety to even the workers on site. This procedure is justified as its consequences are very low, especially when compared to the potential consequences of not venting and risking the containment structures’ integrity.
During this time, mobile generators were transported to the site and some power was restored.  However, more water was boiling off and being vented than was being added to the reactor, thus decreasing the cooling ability of the remaining cooling systems. At some stage during this venting process, the water level may have dropped below the top of the fuel rods.  Regardless, the temperature of some of the fuel rod cladding exceeded 1200 °C, initiating a reaction between the Zircaloy and water. This oxidizing reaction produces hydrogen gas, which mixes with the gas-steam mixture being vented.  This is a known and anticipated process, but the amount of hydrogen gas produced was unknown because the operators didn’t know the exact temperature of the fuel rods or the water level. Since hydrogen gas is extremely combustible, when enough hydrogen gas is mixed with air, it reacts with oxygen. If there is enough hydrogen gas, it will react rapidly, producing an explosion. At some point during the venting process enough hydrogen gas built up inside the containment (there is no air in the containment), so when it was vented to the air an explosion occurred. The explosion took place outside of the containment, but inside and around the reactor building (which has no safety function).  Note that a subsequent and similar explosion occurred at the Unit 3 reactor. This explosion destroyed the top and some of the sides of the reactor building, but did not damage the containment structure or the pressure vessel. While this was not an anticipated event, it happened outside the containment and did not pose a risk to the plant’s safety structures.
Since some of the fuel rod cladding exceeded 1200 °C, some fuel damage occurred. The nuclear material itself was still intact, but the surrounding Zircaloy shell had started failing. At this time, some of the radioactive fission products (cesium, iodine, etc.) started to mix with the water and steam. It was reported that a small amount of cesium and iodine was measured in the steam that was released into the atmosphere.
Since the reactor’s cooling capability was limited, and the water inventory in the reactor was decreasing, engineers decided to inject sea water (mixed with boric acid – a neutron absorber) to ensure the rods remain covered with water.  Although the reactor had been shut down, boric acid is added as a conservative measure to ensure the reactor stays shut down.  Boric acid is also capable of trapping some of the remaining iodine in the water so that it cannot escape, however this trapping is not the primary function of the boric acid.
The water used in the cooling system is purified, demineralized water. The reason to use pure water is to limit the corrosion potential of the coolant water during normal operation. Injecting seawater will require more cleanup after the event, but provided cooling at the time.
This process decreased the temperature of the fuel rods to a non-damaging level. Because the reactor had been shut down a long time ago, the decay heat had decreased to a significantly lower level, so the pressure in the plant stabilized, and venting was no longer required.
***UPDATE – 3/14 8:15 pm EST***
Units 1 and 3 are currently in a stable condition according to TEPCO press releases, but the extent of the fuel damage is unknown.  That said, radiation levels at the Fukushima plant have fallen to 231 micro sieverts (23.1 millirem) as of 2:30 pm March 14th (local time).
***UPDATE – 3/14 10:55 pm EST***
The details about what happened at the Unit 2 reactor are still being determined.  The post on what is happening at the Unit 2 reactor contains more up-to-date information.  Radiation levels have increased, but to what level remains unknown.
http://mitnse.com/2011/03/13/why-i-am-not-worried-about-japans-nuclear-reactors/

2011年3月20日日曜日

Sat, 3/19/11, NaturalNews

Dear NaturalNews readers,

As of right now, the situation remains desperate in Japan, with a confirmation coming this morning that the food near Fukushima is now radioactive.
Efforts to cover the spent fuel rods with cooling water have failed again and again, and now there is concern that at least one of the fuel rod storage pools may be cracked, meaning it cannot hold water. Thus, there's no way to cover the fuel rods no matter how much water you pump in (and the pumps aren't even operating yet anyway...)
The official government explanations about radiation exposure in Japan are an insult to intelligence. A few days ago, they would say things like "The amount of radiation people are experiencing is only equal to that of a chest X-ray." Today with the irradiated food, they now are comparing your exposure to "the amount of radiation you might get from a CT scan." What they don't tell you is that a CT scan emits up to 600 times more radiation than a chest X-ray.
What's next on this scale? Are they soon going to announce that people are only exposed to "the same amount of radiation as a miscalibrated mammogram?" And folks, the radiation exposure in Japan isconstant radiation, meaning it's like getting a CT scan that just keeps scanning 24/7 (if you're close enough to the Fukushima plant). This isn't one limited dose that turns off in two seconds, it's an ongoing radiation avalanche that keeps coming.
The mainstream media has all but abandoned accurate reporting on this issue, almost as if they were all ordered by the White House to just stop talking about Fukushima (because it was scaring people). Here's my story on that:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031748_mainstream_media_nuclear_catastrophe.html

There now appears to be a total information blackout on the true status of reactor #4, reports Ethan Huff:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031758_Fukushima_nuclear_reactor.html


A Japanese Mayor has gone public with his own accusations that the Japanese government abandoned his people and lied to them about the real situation:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031747_nuclear_fallout_disinformation.html

Mark Sircus brings us a timely update today on the worsening situation in Tokyo:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031757_Tokyo_radiation.html

And just to make your week even more exciting, there is apparently a major earthquake predicted in the coming week due to the "supermoon" effect, although personally I'm not sure I believe the supermoon will have any ability to make things any crazier than they are already:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031755_California_earthquake.html

PREPAREDNESS SOLUTIONS: We continue to have one of the last remaining sources of potassium iodidein North America. We have bottles being manufactured right now, over the weekend, in an FDA-approved, GMP manufacturing facility, and ready to ship out Monday for next-day delivery. This will all be sold out by Sunday night, probably. All orders placed today (Saturday) will go out Monday or Tuesday at the latest.Click here to get some of our potassium iodide.
We are also in the process of launching our new line of long-term storable superfoods, and although the website is still not finalized, we are ready to ship all the products listed there. Seewww.StorableOrganics.com for the product list, which includes chlorella, spirulina, Himalayan salt and other superfoods, all packed in steel cans and sealed for storage.

More news continues below on meditation, molasses as weedkiller, radiation prevention, how to cure cancer with a fever (fascinating!), and much more (see below)...


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